Monday, May 25, 2020
On September 11th 2001, the terrorist attacks spread fear and fed conspiracy theorists. On board United Airlines flight 93, everyone died, for a total of 44 losses (Ã¢â¬Å"United Airlines Flight 93Ã¢â¬ ). UA93 crashed in a field near Shanksville, in Pennsylvania. Interpretations of the crash differ, as some believe the government covered-up its involvement in the attacks and others support that the passengers were celebrated as heroes, as they threatened their attackers (McConnachie and Tudge 401). The discussion of two contrasting opinions follows. David Ray Griffin believes UA93 was shot down by the U.S. Air Force, whereas James B. Meigs defends that the heroic resistance of the passengers caused the hijackers to pull the aircraft down. They both demonstrate that the nature and the position of the plane debris at the crash area, as well as the authoritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ reactions to the hijacking, confirm their own point of view. Mr. Meigs explanations express more credibility than Mr. Griffin, due to the compared use of reliable experts to support their claim between the two men and the sufficient evidences to prove their viewpoint. First and foremost, David Ray Griffin, a retired professor of philosophy of religion and theology strongly believes that two military jets chased UA93 and shot it down, fired under the President Bush order. His first reason provided is that the U.S. authorities being certainly aware of the United Airlines hijacking, President Bush supposedly ordered the U.S. AirShow MoreRelatedNew World Order in Conspiracy Theory13987 Words Ã |Ã 56 Pages------------------------------------------------- New World Order (conspiracy theory) This article is about the use of the termÃ New World OrderÃ in conspiracy theory. For other uses, seeÃ New World Order (disambiguation). The reverse side of theÃ Great Seal of the United StatesÃ (1776). The Latin phrase novus ordo seclorum, appearing on the reverse side of the Great Seal since 1782 and on the back of theÃ U.S one-dollar billÃ since 1935, means New Order of the Ages and only alludes to the beginningRead MoreNational Security Outline Essay40741 Words Ã |Ã 163 PagesHarbor attack changed national opinion - protecting homeland now major concern -US became aggressive in defense of homeland after WWII by extending defensive perimeters through the creation of alliances (UN, NATO, Rio Treaty) -Forces -Before WWII, large standing armies were seen as threats to liberty -With development on nuclear weapons, opinion has changed and vulnerability of our military forces has become a high priority -Today - trying to balance dislike of standing armies and fear of longRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words Ã |Ã 319 PagesTeachers, students, ofÃ¯ ¬ ce workers, and anyone of social importance could not grow locks, and families would go into mourning when their sons would start sprouting them. I heard the term Ã¢â¬Å"black heart manÃ¢â¬ used again and again as a means of expressing fear or ridicule of the Rastafarian. And this was in the early 1970sÃ¢â¬âafter Bob Marleys emergence as an international viii FOREWORD star, after Selassies arrival in Jamaica, and after so much had been written about the importance of RastafarianismRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 PagesNEW MANAGEMENT FOR BUSINESS GROWTH IN A DEMANDING ECONOMY 15 Figure 1 Return on Investment Management Capital Results cator of the effectiveness of the top corporate leadership and management role in such innovation as it networks and spreads throughout a company. For example, General Electric has systematically measured and widely reported on the strong business results of major innovations such as its work-out and six sigma initiatives. Similarly, Union Pacific reported on the powerfulRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOur Chances of Accomplishing Our GoalsÃ¢â¬ 204 S A L An Ethical Choice Motivated to Behave Unethically 209 glOBalization! Autonomy Needs Around the Globe 210 Self-Assessment Library What Are My Course Performance Goals? 214 Point/Counterpoint Fear Is a Powerful Motivator 229 Questions for Review 230 Experiential Exercise Goal-Setting Task 230 Ethical Dilemma The Big Easy? 230 Case Incident 1 ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Not Fair! 231 Case Incident 2 Bullying Bosses 231 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The Creole society demands high moral and a traditional lifestyle from the women in The Awakening, by Kate Chopin. Edna Pontillier, the main character, enters a rebellious state of mind as she explores the awakening the other characters influence. The other characters in The Awakening create Edna by influencing her decisions, independence, and sexual desires throughout the story. Mademoiselle Reisz, Robert, and Alcee Arobin challenge Edna to fly above the Creole traditions and become more in-touch with her sexuality, and encourage her to be an independent woman while EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, Leonce, Madame Ratignolle, and EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s father conflict with Edna because they want her to be a traditional Creole wife and mother to her children and try toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, Leonce Pontillier, becomes aware that she is not the woman he married when she begins to argue with him about her duties as a wife and a mother. Ã¢â¬Å"He could see plainly that she was not herself. That is, he could not see that she was becoming herself and daily casting aside that fictitious self which we assume like a garment with which to appear before the world (Chopin 96).Ã¢â¬ Leonce acts as a benchmark throughout the novel reminding Edna that she is bound to her family and makes her feel trapped. He is her reality check. Edna acknowledges that she is a poor mother and wife since she does not fit in with the traditions of the Creole society. When EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s father comes to visit, he is disappointed that Edna is not living up to LeonceÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations since she is not actually from a different lifestyle. He mentions that she might just be different than other women and directs Leonce to be more strict with her saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Put your foot down good and hard; the only way to manage a wife (Chopin 119).Ã¢â¬ Edna tries hard to entertain her father during his stay to prove to him that she can live in the traditional society, though she is happy when he leaves. EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s father conflicts with her views of her life which compels her to act more traditional when he visits. Alcee Arobin is the man that all the women wish they had. He knows how to flatter the women, especially Edna. Arobin
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Beauty is pain. In other words, beauty comes at a high costÃ¢â¬âand a painful one. For decades, girls have been conditioned to believe that we must sufferÃ¢â¬âphysically, mentally, or emotionallyÃ¢â¬âin order to be beautiful. Women and girls alike are often told that beauty is on the inside, but then society convinces them otherwise: that it is a difficult process and something to be achieved. Ã¢â¬Å"Beauty is painÃ¢â¬ makes it seem like there are rules to conform to or tasks to be completed in order to achieve ultimate beauty: we go through all these stepsÃ¢â¬âeyebrow waxing, heel wearing, and more. The nature of beauty is one of the most contradicting, yet fascinating philosophies of all. Like fashion trends, the perception of beauty has consistently changed over the course off centuriesÃ¢â¬âsometimes for the better, and other times for the worst. However, one thing remains certain: society strives to mold/conform to whatever is momentarily considered attractive. From 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s flappers to 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s disco, the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"attractivenessÃ¢â¬ continues to evolve. Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Nobel Prize-winning novel, The Bluest Eye, explores themes of beauty and the power of appearance. During the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, amidst World War II conflict, the Ã¢â¬Å"Aryan raceÃ¢â¬ was praised/idolized for fair skin, light eyes, and blonde hair. Pecola, a young, low-class black girl strives to achieve this standard of beauty in hopes of discovering happiness/personal fulfillment in a world full/plagued with of moral unease. But to what degree doesShow MoreRelatedThe Sublime And The Beautiful1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesformal, material, efficient and final causes. The formal cause of beauty is the passion of love; the material cause deals with the objective aspect, such as smoothness and proportions; the efficient cause is mental ease and satisfaction; the final cause is God s divine intervention. Unlike Johan Joachim WinckelmannÃ¢â¬â¢s pr ospect of beauty in the LaocoÃ ¶n, BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s view of beauty does not stand on the traditional Greek notion of beauty which deals with proportions, harmony and rhythm, instead just dealsRead MoreWhat Is Art?, And Marcel Duchamp s The Creative Act1067 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexplanation of art thought the combined in structure and form to express the truth and beauty of SalcedoÃ¢â¬â¢s work, the nonfigurative subject catches the symbolic harrowing moment of the effect of war and violence happened, also a metaphor of her culture idea and individual meaning, experience her political view to deal with female issue of the subject matter. The female shoes as the subject of this artwork do not have the beauty and cannot understand the truth at the first sign, but the form the art clearlyRead MoreThe Beauty Myth By Naomi Wolf1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe novel The Beauty Myth by Naomi Wolf focuses highly on feminism in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s times. Throughout the novel the author describes different situations in which women are stereotypically viewed. So many women believe that the real meaning of beauty is what is shown on the television. Many end up disregarding their opinions and instead molding it into the views of their peers. The author argues that some women are being victims by; work, media, religion, sex, violence, and hunger. Beauty was once seenRead MoreThe Poems Of The Poem, Hymn Of Intellectual Beauty, By Percy Shelley1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Hymn to Intellectual BeautyÃ¢â¬ by Percy Shelley and Ã¢â¬Å"Ode to A NightingaleÃ¢â¬ by John Keats both discuss the topics of escaping reality and true beaut y using visions of nature to express their views. Shelley, a well known atheist, finds religion in, what he calls, Ã¢â¬Å"spirit of beautyÃ¢â¬ . Once he makes this discovery, he is able to find a true understanding of the world around him. Keats lives his life in a state of depression, depending on the effects of alcohol to sooth his emotional pain. When he hears theRead MoreBeauty s Take On Life873 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestheir true beauty is revealed only if there is a light from within.Ã¢â¬ She explains what the two types of beauty are; inner and outer beauty. Beauty is a viewpoint and it depends on different factors based on the personÃ¢â¬â¢s liking. People make first impressions based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical beauty, although it is their inner beauty that makes them distinct. Inner and outer beauty defines people in how it is achieved, how society and culture view it, and the risks related to beauty. Outer beauty is the physicalRead MoreEssay on The Ideal Female and the Oppression of Women862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Ideal Female and the Oppression of Women By having an impossible ideal female look, society is beating us as women. We have no time to come up in world through politics, business, or any other power related structure because weÃ¢â¬â¢re spending all of our time trying to maintain, or achieve this beauty. The ideal woman is ever-changing. Different features and different characteristics are valued at different times and throughout different cultures. And each time the ideals change, or one changesRead MoreThe Effects Of Plastic Surgery On South Korea1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessort of cosmetic surgery procedure. Most Asian countries, including South Korea, have very specific criterias for judging if a person is beautiful. Common beauty expectations for both males and females are high noses, big eyes, and narrow chins. Due to the nature of an Asian bone structure, it is highly unlikely that the previously mentioned beauty standards will occur naturally within a body. Many turn to the growing trend of plastic surgery to achiev e an aesthetically pleasing face. South Korea isRead MoreBeauty Is Not Pain?1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBeauty is NOT pain As we get older we all experience changes in our body, some that we love and others that we could do without. People are born in all shapes and sizes, but why is it that some choose to change that with cosmetic and plastic surgery? What would motivate someone to go through hours of pain just for a new body? With the appearance of more Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ looking celebrities in the media, the self-esteem of many women spiral down, especially in Asia. Beauty standards in South Korea are nowRead MorePersuasive Essay On The Standard Of Beauty1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesplace. Beauty standards are so high they create negative body images and women who hate the way they look. Women look in the mirror and they pick themselves apart, and point out their personal flaws, and compare themselves to others. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Brexit for Dynamic of Nation. Answer: Introduction The June of 2016 garnered a lot of interest from all across the globe due to a phenomenon that both shocked and rocked the world. It shook not only the politics of the world but also the dynamics of all the nations. The phenomenon referred here was Brexit. Brexit occurred when the United Kingdom decided to withdraw from the European Union, and the exit of British was blended as the word Brexit, a short for Britain exit (Hunt Wheeler, 2016). A referendum was held in June of 2016, where the people of United Kingdom (UK) were asked to vote to either stay or leave the European Union. 52% of the people cast their vote in favor of leaving the European Union (EU). This referendum was considered as a historic referendum and the date of June 23rd, 2016 was marked in history as the day UK left the EU (Hunt Wheeler, 2016). This outcome resulted in jubilant celebrations from the Eurosceptics around the continent, but it sent huge shockwaves to the global economy. Even the then Prime Minister of UK, David Cameron, resigned from his post as a result of the referendum passed in favor of leaving the EU. Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which provides the formal procedure for withdrawing from the EU, was to be invoked by the end of March 2017, as announced by the present Prime Minister Theresa May, which would then put UK on the path to leave the EU by the end of March 2019 (BBC, 2016). The Prime Minister has also made a promise to remove the European Communities Act 1972 from the countrys statute books, and to integrate the present EU laws into the domestic laws of UK. In the following parts, the various aspects of Brexit have been covered. This includes the historical background, a discussion of Article 50, the 2016 referendum, the resultant consequences of such withdrawal. The following discussion is aimed at understanding how and why Brexit came into existence and the future of Brexit, as well as, its impact over UK, EU and the rest of the world. A lot of concern has been surrounded with the UK leaving the EU. Some have even viewed it as a potential doom of the UK, whilst others have happily accepted as a reform. The ensuing segment highlights the reasons behind these views and also tries to analyze which view is correct. Historical Background The Treaty of Rome was the reason why EU or as it was formerly known as, the European Economic Community, was formed in the year 1957. In 1961, the UK made its first ever application to the EU to join it. This was due to the increasing danger of political isolation within the Western Europe which was forcing the Commonwealth states to form allegiance with the new bloc, i.e., the European Union. UK found the support of America in this application; but this application was vetoed in the year 1963 by the French Government, and a consecutive application in the year 1967 was again vetoed by the French Government. However, UK was successful in getting the green light to initiate the negotiations for the British membership was given in the year of 1969. On January 1st, 1973, along with Denmark and Ireland, the UK joined the European Economic Community, as the EU was known back then (UK And EU, 2016). Even the joining of EU or the European Economic Community was controversial at that time. A renegotiation of this membership was sought by the Labor Party in the initial stages, though this was later on, brought down by requiring a referendum to be passed to decide if UK should or should not remain a part of the European Economic Community. The mainstream media, as well as, the key political parties were in favor of continuing the membership of the European Economic Community. In 1975, this referendum was held, to decide this matter, where the results were in favor of the continued member of the UK in European Economic Community, by 67% of the votes (UK And EU, 2016). And so, the UK continued to be a part of the European Economic Community. Such referendums have been constant since the UK became of part of the European Economic Community or EU. And in between such referendums, a lot went on where one or the other aspect of the EU was put to test. UK, in the year 1979, decided to opt out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, which acted as the forerunner in the creation of euro. In the general elections of 1983, the opposing Labor Party campaigned on a pledge to depart from the European Economic Community without passing any referendum (Vaidyanathan, 2010). The re-election of the Margaret Thatchers Conservative government heavily defeated this pledge and consequently the Labor Party changed its policy. A ratification of the Single European Act in the year 1985 took place with any referendum, which was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome, and it was 100% backed by the Margaret Thatchers HM Government. On November 1st, 1993, the European Economic Community became the European Union as a result of the Maastricht Treaty. This new name was aimed to reflect upon the evolution of this organization from being just an economic union to a political one. On December 1st, 2009, the Lisbon Treaty came into force, which further resulted in the change in the name of the Maastricht Treaty to the Treaty on European Union 2007 or simply the TEU, and the Treaty of Rome was changed to the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union 2007 or simply the TFEU (European Union, 2016). In 1964, Sir James Goldsmith formed the Referendum Party, with the aim of contesting the general elections of 1997, in order to provide a referendum on the membership of the UK in the EU (Ford Goodwin, 2014). Candidates were filed in 547 constituencies in the general election, where a total of 810,860 votes were won by the party, which formed 2.6% of the total casted votes. Though, the party failed in wining a single parliamentary seat at these votes, as a result of which it lost the deposits in 505 constituencies, which were funded by Goldsmith (Politics Resources, 2012). In 1993, a Eurosceptic political party was formed by the name of UK Independence Party (UKIP). In the general elections of 2004, this party was at third place; in the general elections of 2009, the party attained second place; and in the general elections of 2012, UKIP came at the first place with a total of 27.5% votes. Since the general elections of 1910, this was the first time that any party other than the Conservative or the Labor party had taken the majority of votes in the national elections (Mason, 2014). Eurposcepticism has seen a rise in the history of UK. The British Social Attitudes have been collected opinions since 1983 in Europe regarding whether the UK should withdraw or remain from EU. In the survey of 1990, 22% of the respondents agreed that UK should withdraw, but 43% agreed that UK should remain a part of EU but should attempt to diminish the powers of the EU. 65% of the people desired to break the legislative influence of the EU or to breach its ties (Tarran, 2016). And since 1993, the Euroscepticism has only risen. Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union is one of the parts of the laws of the EU, which contains the provisions which set out the process through which the member states of EU can withdraw from the EU. The use of Article 50 has been extensively debated, especially after the referendum which was held in the UK on June 23rd, 2016. As soon as Article 50 is triggered, a country gets two year time limit to complete the negotiations. If the country fails through the negotiations to reach any agreement, the leaving stated gets nothing (Renwick, 2016). After the referendum of June 2016 was passed, the then PM Prime Minster, David Cameron declared that the subsequent Prime Minister of UK should be the one to activate this article and to start the negotiation process with the EU (Cooper, 2016). The subsequent and present Prime Minister Theresa May cleared that the discussions on this topic would not begin in the year of 2016. Through an announcement in October 2016, she announced that the Article 50 would be triggered only in the first quarter of the year 2017 (BBC, 2016). There was also controversy regarding whether or not a parliamentary approval was needed before invoking of the Article 50. One of the columnists of a famous newspaper asked this question, one week after the referendum was passed, and answered in that such an approval was indeed required (Pannick, 2016). The government was of the view that such an approval was not required as the use of the sanctioned powers to enact the referendum was constitutionally correct, as well as, was consistent with the domestic laws (Williams et al., 2016). This interpretation of law by the government was challenged by three groups of citizens in the case of R (Miller and Dos Santos) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union  EWHC 2768, before the High Court of England and Wales (Courts and Tribunals Judiciary, 2016). The court ruled on November 3rd, 2016 that a parliamentary vote was required by the UK before formally initiating the leaving process of the UK from the EU. The court was of the view that the royal prerogative, which was being exercised by the United Kingdoms Prime Minister, could not be used to nullify the primary legislation which has been enacted by the Parliament. And so, only the Parliament of UK could trigger the Article 50, which notifies the intention of the initiation of negotiations of the terms to leave the EU (British and Irish Legal Information Institute, 2016). Theresa May promised in October 2016, a Great Repeal Bill, which would result in repealing of the European Communities Act, 1972. Further, this bill would reinstate all the enactments which were previously in force under the laws of EU, in the domestic laws of the UK. The bill is set to be introduced in the parliamentary session of autumn 2016 and would be enacted during or before the negotiations of Article 50. But this bill would not come into force, till the date of exit of UK. This law was aimed at ensuring a smooth transition by keeping all the laws in force, till the time they were specifically repealed (Mason, 2016). The 2016 Referendum The previous Prime Minister David Cameron in 2012 rejected many a calls for referendum over the membership of the UK in the EU, but kept open the possibility for a future referendum, in order to gauge the support of the public (Sparrow, 2014). Under the pressure from his own MPs, as well as from the rise of the UK Independence Party, Cameron announced in January 2013 that if elected in 2015, the conservative government would hold a referendum over the membership on a renegotiated package by the end of the year 2017 (BBC, 2013). Unexpectedly, the Conservative Party won the general elections of 2015 with a huge majority. To enable the referendum, the European Union Referendum Act 2015 was soon afterwards introduced in the Parliament of UK. Cameron was in favor of remaining a part of the EU and wanted to negotiation again on the four main points, which were, the reduction of red tape, restriction of the EU immigration, protecting the single market for the non-euro zone countries, and the exemption of UK from the ever-closer union (BBC, 2015). The announcement of the renegotiations outcome was done in February 2016. Certain limits regarding the in-work benefits were agreed upon for the new immigrants from the EU, but before any of these could e applied, UK had to attain permission firstly from the European Commission and subsequently from the European Council (Spaventa, 2016). Cameroun announced the date of referendum as June 23rd, 2016 while delivering his speech in the House of Commons on February 22nd, 2016 (UK Parliament, 2016). Vote Leave was the official campaign group for leaving the EU, and other major campaign groups included Better Off Out, Grassroots Out and Get Britain Out (Watt, 2016). Britain Stronger in Europe which was informally known as Remain was the official campaign which supported the UK continuing a part of the EU, and this was chaired by Stuart Rose (BBC, 2016). Some of the other campaigns which supported this included the Labour in for Britain, Another Europe is Possible, Conservatives In, #INtogether (Liberal Democrats), and Greens for a Better Europe. The morning of June 24th, 2016, came with the announcement of the results of the referendum, where 51.9% of the people voted in favor of the UK leaving the EU, as against 48.1% who voted in favor of UK remaining the part of the EU. A petition which called for a second referendum achieved signatures of over four million people, but this petition was rejected on July 9th, 2016 by the government (The Electoral Commission, 2016). (Source: The Electoral Commission, 2016) After the results of the referendum were declared, David Cameron announced his resignation, effective from October 2016 (BBC, 2016). On July 13th, 2016, he stood down from his position of Prime Minister and Theresa May took his position as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, was replaced by Philip Hammond; Boris Johnson, who was the former Mayor of London, was appointed as the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, and on the post of Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, David Davis was appointed. Jemermy Corbyn could not attain the vote of confidence from his Labor Party and this resulted in a leadership challenge. The UKIP also changed its head as Nigel Farage resigned on July 4th, 2016 as the head of the UKIP (BBC, 2016). The result brought celebrations amongst many of the Eurosceptic leaders outside UK and they expected the other nations of the EU to follow the footsteps of UK. Geert Wilders, who is the right-wing Dutch populist, announced that Netherlands needed to follow the example set by UK and should hold a referendum on whether or not Netherlands should remain a part of the EU (Foster, 2016). But the opinion polls showed a different view, which were taken a fortnight after the results were declared of the referendum, and this depicted that the other nations of EU, along with Netherlands, showed a decline in the support to the movements of such Eurosceptics (Oltermann, Scammell Darroch, 2016). The former Prime Minster and Labor Party leader, Gordon Brown who was a signatory to the Lisbon Treaty in 2007, clearly warned that in the next decade, the UK would be busy in refighting the referendum. He further stated that the pessimist were adamant at proving that Brexit was unmanageable without a catastrophe, and on the other hand the optimist claimed that the economic risks were exaggerated (Brown, 2016). His predecessor, Tony Blair, who was also the former Prime Minster and Labor Party leader, said on 28th October, 2016 that the public opinion was set to change, as soon as the implications of the Brexit were clearly and fully understood by the people (BBC, 2016). In 2004, he signed the Treaty which led to the establishment of the Constitution of the Europe, which remained ungratified by the other states, along with the UK. Blair called for a second referendum, where the decision had to be made through either a general election or through the Parliament of UK to finally decide upon the point that Britain should leave the EU (Watts, 2016). Consequences of Brexit Economy Some attempts have been made to quantify the impact of the UKs exit from the EU over the economy of the UK. There are a broad range of estimates in these post-Brexit situations. On one hand the people have argued that the economy of the country would suffer permanent losses due to the weaker investments, as well as, trade. But, on the other hand, the people believe that the freedom from the rules, along with the costs, which have to be borne due to the membership with the EU, would enable UK in being prosperous (Allen et al., 2015). To support the statement that Brexit would result in loss to the economy of UK, the 2004 research is often cited which belong to the researchers of the National Institute of Economic and Social Research. As per their research, the GDP of the UK would be permanently reduced by 2.25% due to the lower foreign direct investments. But, these estimates are quite old and the economy of the world has changed in a considerable manner since then. Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) which is a part of the London School of Economics gave anther analysis where the income falls suffered by UK were estimated to be in between 6.3% to 9.5% of UKs GDP. This loss was similar to the loss which resulted from the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-2009 (Allen et al., 2015). So, in the pessimistic scenario of these researches, UK would fail in negotiating on favorable trade terms. Even in the optimistic scenario where UK had free trade agreement with EU, the loss would be in terms of 2.2% of the GDP (Allen et al., 2015). And the overall view of such individuals was that leaving the EU would impose a lot of substantial costs on the economy of UK and was a very risky gamble. There are others who believe that the exit of UK could result in the boosting of the GDP of the country. Roger Bootle, a famous economist, believed that without a fundamental reform, EU was not worth stating in. Bootle noted that UK had paid 1% of its GDP of 16.4 billion in 2012 to the institutions of the EU. The government of UK, on the other hand, received a rebate on the contributions to the budget of EU for a sum of 3.1 billion, in addition to 0.9 billion in other receipts. UK had paid an overall sum of 9.6 billion to the EU, which was about 0.6% of its nominal GDP (Allen et al., 2015). He believed that such sum could not dictate the momentous decisions like Brexit. There are groups who believe that even though UK is the net contributor to the EU, but the country would face pressure after Brexit, to replace the regional funding, as well as, the agricultural subsidies, along with the domestic spending of the EU. And since the migrants form a large base of net contributors to the Treasury, Brexit would place a dent on immigration, and would result in the rejuvenation of the ageing population of the UK (Allen et al., 2015). Jobs Nick Clegg, the former Liberal Democrat leader, in the past has claimed that over three million jobs were dependent upon the UKs membership of the EU when the arguments were being made for UK to remain a part of the EU. It had been reported by the Guardian that the Liberal Democrats had said that EU played a huge apart in safeguarding the jobs in Britain, as EU provided an access to different markets which consists of over 500 million consumers, and also for the reason that the membership of UK in EU attracts a lot of foreign companies which are keen on becoming the part of this market (Allen et al., 2015). Some of the companies who have considered scaling back in Britain, in case Brexit was to come into being include the US investment bank Goldman Sachs, food maker Nestl, and car companies like Ford and Hyundai. The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders believe that Europe is a crucial part for the success of automotive industry in Britain. This sector alone accounts for 3% of the GDP, and employs around 700,000 people (Allen et al., 2015). But such facts have to be dealt in a cautious manner. Even though the bosses of such companies have raised this issue that EU creates a lot of jobs for UK, and a loss would result from Brexit, but there are no guarantees to this fact of loss. Also, implying that millions of job would disappear is unsubstantial and outright mischievous. This view has been supported by the Institute of Economic Affairs, in its paper by author Ryan Bourne. Bourne believes that the dynamic market of UK would easily adjust to the changes which would result from Brexit and that the stated loss by the bosses was a misuse of assertion (Allen et al., 2015). Trade This area has been full of claims and counter claims regarding the impact of Brexit over the exports of UK. Nigel Farge has made an argument the UK has freed itself from the rules, as well as, regulations by withdrawing from EU. He further believed that as a result of Brexit, UK was on its way of being a stronger, independent trading nation (Allen et al., 2015). The others believe that Brexit would result in UK being shut out of the most crucial market, which is the EU, as well as, with such markets with which the EU has trade agreements. The British Chambers of Commerce conducted a survey of around 3500 businesses. 57% of the respondents believed that by remaining a part of the EU, and with more power being brought to Westminster, UK would have been in a more favorable scenario. But 28% of the respondents believed that withdrawing, accompanied by a formal UK-EU was the positive scenario. A mere 13% believed that leaving without any agreement was a positive case (Allen et al., 2015). Immigration It is claimed that Brexit would allow the UK in taking back the control of its borders. But this claim is doubtful. The reason behind this is that a lot less number of people, come to work and live in Britain from the EU, as compared to the other nations. This is evident from the stats of 2014, which show that out of the 624,000 people who immigrated to Britain contained majority from out of EU, at 292,000 (Allen et al., 2015). Unless clarity is brought around the updated arrangement of UK with EU, it is hard to say that the borders are in control of UK. Experts believe that the access to single market would be provided to UK at the price of a similar arrangement that is currently in place regarding the free movement (Allen et al., 2015). And till the time a replacement arrangement is adopted, the British national law would regulate the migration from in and out of UK. Impact on EU The impact of Brexit on the EU would be extensive and long-lasting. As per the economist Gregor Irwin, the actual process of Britain leaving the EUs partnership, as well as, the establishment of new agreements with the rest of the nations in the EU would roughly take around 10 years. Many businesses would have to face uncertainty while the UK would be busy in forging new contracts with the countries left in the consortium (FXCM, 2016). The relationship between EU and UK could take a lot of different turns after Brexit. Irwin believed that it would involve either a Swiss-style model containing a number of bilateral agreements or a detailed Free Trade Agreement. Both of these would require continuous negotiations (FXCM, 2016). The Lisbon Treaty of 2009 dictates that the decision of the Council of EU can be blocked by four countries forming a blocking minority (EUABC, 2016). This rule was formulated with a view of preventing the three key members, in line of Britain, Germany and France from dominating the Council of EU. But, as a result of Brexit, the northern European countries like Balts, Dutch, and the Scandinavians, and the Germans would all lose an ally, and as a result, the blocking minority also. The EU could easily overrule Germany and its allies without this blocking minority regarding the budget discipline of EU and the German banks recruitment so as to guarantee the deposits in the troubled banks of the southern European member states (Siems, 2016). As a result of Brexit, EU would lose the financial centre of the world, the second largest economy of EU, the second largest net contributor to the budget of EU, and the nation which has the third-largest population (Global Counsel, 2015). So, with Brexit the financial burden would increase on the remaining nations. For instance, Germany would have to shed an additional of 4.5 billion Euros, for not only one year, but two consecutive years of 2019, as well as, 2020 (Reuters, 2016). Next to France, EU would lose its strongest military power due to Brexit. This would include the loss of one of the two veto powers that EU had in the UNs Security Council, along with the loss of the British nuclear shield. One of the reports by German Institute for International and Security Affairs suggest that Brexit could result in tipping of the EU towards protectionism, exacerbation of the present divisions and even the unleashing of such forces which would lead to the unraveling of the EU. He believes that on the other hand, that Brexit would free EU from its most uncomfortable member and would make way for EU to lead in a more effective manner (Oliver, 2013). Conclusion The 2016 Referendum has sealed the fate of UK and Brexit is the child of this referendum. The voters were asked if the country should remain a part of the European Union or should the country leave the European Union. A lot of politics involved this decision, where some parties favored the exit and other favored the stay. Ultimately, the results revealed that a majority has approved the exit of Britain from the EU. By invoking the Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, UK would begin the formal procedure for withdrawing, as announced by the present Prime Minister of UK, Theresa May, and the procedure would start by the end of March 2017. Case was also filed challenging the view of the government as per which, a parliamentary vote was not required but the court held otherwise. Britain, in its history, has had a lot of decisions made through referendums. Whether the question was related to continuing the membership of the European Economic Community or continuing the membership of European Union, the referendums have been used as a solution to decide on the crucial matter. And even in between these referendums, a lot goes around, as has been highlighted above. Brexit has attracted a lot of attention from across the globe. Not only because of the major change in dynamics of the EU, as well as, UK, but also because of the impact would Brexit have over the other countries. Some individuals believed that Brexit was the best thing to happen to UK, while others believed that UK walked towards its doom by passing the referendum. The previous segments highlighted this view. The above parts also elucidated upon the consequences of Brexit, on the various aspects. As a result of Brexit, many experts believe that UK would lose on economical grounds, jobs, and that the borders would once again come under the control of UK. But other groups of experts have had an entirely different view, which says that UK would gain by the saving in the costs, and have also shown that the jobs would not be affected. The statistics have revealed that the border problem would continue, as the numbers of migrants were from out of EU. The impact of Brexit on EU was also highlighted, which revealed the EU would lose gravely from Brexit. To conclude, it can be said that only time can reveal which party loses and which party wins as a result of Brexit. But, it is sufficient to say that Brexit is a revolution, which has forever formed a party of history. References Allen, K., Oltermann, P., Borger, J., Neslen, A. (2015). Brexit what would happen if Britain left the EU?. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/may/14/brexit-what-would-happen-if-britain-left-eu-european-union-referendum-uk BBC. (2013). David Cameron promises in/out referendum on EU. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-21148282 BBC. (2015). David Cameron sets out EU reform goals. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-34770875 BBC. (2016). Brexit: David Cameron to quit after UK votes to leave EU. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-36615028 BBC. (2016). Brexit: Theresa May to trigger Article 50 by end of March. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-37532364 BBC. (2016). The people hoping to persuade UK to vote to stay in the EU. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-34505076 BBC. (2016). Tony Blair: Options must stay open on Brexit. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-37797127 BBC. (2016). UKIP leader Nigel Farage stands down. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-36702468 British and Irish Legal Information Institute. (2016). Miller Anor, R (On the Application Of) v The Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union (Rev 1)  EWHC 2768 (Admin) (03 November 2016). Retrieved from: https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Admin/2016/2768.html Brown, G. (2016). The key lesson of Brexit is that globalisation must work for all of Britain. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/29/key-lesson-of-brexit-globalisation-must-work-for-all-of-britain Cooper, C. (2016). David Cameron rules out second EU referendum after Brexit. Retrieved from: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-what-is-eu-referendum-petition-david-cameron-a7105596.html Courts and Tribunals Judiciary. (2016). R (Miller) -v- Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union. Retrieved from: https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/judgments/r-miller-v-secretary-of-state-for-exiting-the-european-union/ EUABC. (2016). Blocking minority. Retrieved from: https://en.euabc.com/word/94 European Union. (2016). EU treaties. Retrieved from: https://europa.eu/european-union/eu-law/decision-making/treaties_en Ford, R., Goodwin, M.J. (2014). Revolt on the Right: Explaining Support for the Radical Right in Britain. Oxon: Routledge. Foster, P. (2016). Exclusive: Britain 'could liberate Europe again' by voting for Brexit and sparking populist revolution. Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/21/britain-could-liberate-europe-again-by-voting-for-brexit-and-spa/ FXCM. (2016). What Would A Brexit Mean For The UK And Europe?. Retrieved from: https://www.fxcm.com/insights/what-would-a-brexit-mean-for-the-uk-and-europe/ Global Counsel. (2015). BREXIT: the impact on the UK and the EU June 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.global-counsel.co.uk/sites/default/files/special-reports/downloads/Global%20Counsel_Impact_of_Brexit.pdf Hunt, A., Wheeler, B. (2016). Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887 Mason, R. (2014). 10 key lessons from the European election results. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/may/26/10-key-lessons-european-election-results Mason, R. (2016). Theresa May's 'great repeal bill': what's going to happen and when?. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/oct/02/theresa-may-great-repeal-bill-eu-british-law Oliver, T.L. (2013). Europe without Britain. Retrieved from: https://www.swp-berlin.org/en/publications/swp-research-papers/swp-research-paper-detail/article/europe_without_britain.html Oltermann, P., Scammell, R., Darroch, G. (2016). Brexit causes resurgence in pro-EU leanings across continent. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/08/brexit-causes-resurgence-in-pro-eu-leanings-across-continent Pannick, D. (2016). Why giving notice of withdrawal from the EU requires act of parliament. Retrieved from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/c8985886-3df9-11e6-a28b-4ed6c4bdada3 Politics Resources. (2012). Party Vote and Lost deposits. Retrieved from: https://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/ge97/partycand.htm Renwick, A. (2016). What happens if we vote for Brexit?. Retrieved from: https://constitution-unit.com/2016/01/19/what-happens-if-we-vote-for-brexit/ Reuters. (2016). Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union will be expensive for Germany. Retrieved from: https://www.faz.net/aktuell/wirtschaft/wirtschaftspolitik/nettozahler-zum-eu-haushalt-brexit-wird-teuer-fuer-deutschland-14429116.html Siems, D. (2016). Germany in the EU soon lonely furrow. Retrieved from: https://www.welt.de/debatte/kommentare/article156289462/Deutschland-in-der-EU-bald-allein-auf-weiter-Flur.html Sparrow, A. (2014). PM accused of weak stance on Europe referendum. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2012/jul/01/david-cameron-europe-referendum-noncommittal Spaventa, E. (2016). Explaining the EU deal: the emergency brake. Retrieved from: https://fullfact.org/europe/explaining-eu-deal-emergency-brake/ Tarran, B. (2016). The Economy: a Brexit vote winner?.Significance, 13(2). doi: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2016.00891.x The Electoral Commission. (2016). EU referendum results. Retrieved from: https://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/find-information-by-subject/elections-and-referendums/upcoming-elections-and-referendums/eu-referendum/electorate-and-count-information UK And EU. (2016). When did Britain decide to join the European Union?. Retrieved from: https://ukandeu.ac.uk/fact-figures/when-did-britain-decide-to-join-the-european-union/ UK Parliament. (2016). House of Commons. Retrieved from: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmhansrd/cm160222/debtext/160222-0001.htm#16022210000001 Vaidyanathan, R. (2010). Michael Foot: What did the 'longest suicide note' say?. Retrieved from: https://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8550425.stm Watt, I. (2016). Iain Duncan Smith to go it alone in campaign to leave EU. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jan/20/iain-duncan-smith-to-go-it-alone-in-campaign-to-leave-eu Watts, J. (2016). Brexit: Tony Blair says there must be a second vote on UK's membership of EU. Retrieved from: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-tony-blair-second-eu-referendum-vote-article-50-latest-a7384411.html Williams, G., Livingston, D., Zar, N., Geeurickx, K.. (2016). Judicial review litigation over the correct constitutional process for triggering Article 50 TEU. Retrieved from: https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=f43e102f-ea09-4449-b781-a35ecfe628fe
Friday, April 10, 2020
Health safety at work Essay Employers and employees must comply with the duties set out in out which are as follows: Section 2 places a duty on employers for the health, safety and welfare of employees by consulting with read union safety representatives on health and safety matters within workplace. Moreover, employers with more than five employees should prepare written health and safety policy and bring it to the notice of employees. Section 3 requires employers to make sure that non employees who may be affected but work are not exposed to their health and safety. Section 4 requires ensuring that the premises, plant and machinery do not harm the people using It. Section 5 requires the prevention and control of harmful, noxious or offensive emissions into the atmosphere. Section 6 places duties that designers, manufacturers and suppliers are that the articles and substances provided are safe to use. Section 7 requires the employee to take care of him or her and any of other who may be affected by his or her actions. And also require the employees cooperation with their employer in health and safety issues. Section 8 requires employees to not Interfere or misuse anything provided in the Interest of health and safety. This brief sets out to identify health and safety legislation and procedures applied in Food retail industry McDonalds. Background From the article published on leading newspaper on 2nd April 2008, McDonalds at Leister has been fined a total of almost 40000 after a worker was badly injured following a fall. During hearing in the court, the company admitted breaching health and safety regulation. Worker also complained about the failure to correctly complete an accident investigation form, and also there had been failure to complete a falls risk assessment which would have averted the accident. We will write a custom essay sample on Health safety at work specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Health safety at work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Health safety at work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer After that accident, McDonalds has a strong health and safety culture and then design of kitchen had en altered and safety upgraded. So It Is very Important that food Retail Industry company McDonalds should take health and Safety of their employers seriously and therefore in safety procedures are been discussed in rest of the briefing paper. One of the major priority of Macdonald is to ensure the safety of employees, customers and visitors. Co-operation on the part of us all is vital to the success of the Health Safety Policy. Every staff have their own responsibilities to ensure that the risk of Injury or Ill health Is enameled. As with all other aspects of business , Macdonald re continually Improving tenet performance Day measuring gallant standards Ana reviewing safety progress on daily basis. Negation of health and safety requirement is considered as the serious breach of discipline. Employee Responsibilities in McDonalds As being the employee of Macdonald, there are various responsibilities one needs to follow to ensure health and safety at workplace. First and foremost to take reasonable care for health and safety of oneself and other persons who may be affected by your acts or omissions at work; In order to fulfill company statutory obligations and comply with company policy, employee needs to cooperate with management teams and other crew member. All the safety rules and procedures must be carefully observed and PEP should be worn all the time when handling any risky objects and any safeguards provided shouldnt be misused or recklessly interfered with anything in interest of health and safety. Managers should have responsibilities for training and supervising the crew members during the shift and have to ensure that staffs are adhering to correct procedures. Witness of Heath and Safety Hazard If any specific health or safety hazard which is not covered in rules book, comes to attention then one should isolate the area or equipment immediately and report to the shift manager. Likewise every restaurant , Macdonald also has a Hazard Reporting Book ,where any seen hazard must be recorded. And Failure to record the hazard in that book provided will be treated extremely seriously and results in disciplinary action. Informed about health and safety issue One of the internal part of all procedures is Health and Safety. Additional specific training is provided to employees as a part of training courses in line with susceptibilities provided. Health and safety manual is provided at each restaurant the gives the details of Additionally specific training in safety matters is included in various training courses in line with your responsibilities. A Health Safety Manual is provided at each restaurant and gives details of the organization and arrangement for implementing and developing health and safety policy,Risk statements for various tasks, equipment and chemicals handling, safety bulletins are provided to highlight safety issues in regular interval. Staff and management held safety circle tenting to review the progress and effectiveness of safety within the restaurant in regular basis. Macdonald always involves the participation of crews and managers in the development and operations of health and safety policy. Opportunities are provided to crews and manager to address any safety measures or any concern at safety circle meetings. Additionally, any specific or general comments on health and safety matters is always welcomed any time by contacting the managers. A Risk Assessment As with any workplace, there is a risk of injury or ill health to yourself and other if not now about hazards. So one has make sure to follow company policies and procedures when handling with hazards. Incase of Accident All injuries must be reported to manager and shift managers must ensure that their first aid qualification is up to date. If any accidents occurs in the shift then it should be recorded on accident book. The checklist inside the accident book also highlights ten legal Dilation to report spectacles types AT Injury to employees, essences Trot work following an injury , or incidents known as Dangerous Occurrences to the Local Authority within strictly defined time period. The shift managers is reprehensible for the communicating the accurate information to Hygiene Safety Department within right period of time for the company to fulfill its statutory duties. Health and Safety Procedure at McDonalds Every staff working in McDonalds must complicity with following heath and safety procedure while working in restaurant: Firstly Uniform must be neat and clean including apron. Hair must be way from face, completely under hat. Hand must be washed using correct methods. Hands must be washed and dried thoroughly whenever contaminated. Hands must be washed every 30 min when working in itched an in every hour when working front counter, drive-thru or dining area. Preventing Slips, Trips and Falls Commonly occurred accident in workplace is slip and fall. The following procedure must be followed to ensure safety for everyone: Floor should be always kept clean by sweeping and mopping the floor with fresh Solidness Floorer Solution. Wet Floor sign must be placed on the area when needed. Mopping should be avoided during busy periods. Any spillages seen should be cleared straight away and wet floor sign should be placed near spillage. Never run. Correct shoes must be worn overtime. Shoes must have good grip, be enclosed,comfortable and clean. Trip hazards must be avoided by not leaving boxes, cables or other obstruction near doorways or where others might trip over. Working at Height Whenever working in height ,either to access items or for cleanliness step ladders must be used all the time. Following procedures must be applied when using step ladders: Ladders steps must be clean and dry. Ensure steps are in good condition and are clean and dry Ladders should be fully open with side bars locked into position. Standing on the top two steps should be avoided. Never lean sideways. Always climb down and the steps should be repositioned. Help should always be asked when needed. Standing or standing on equipment, chairs or stock room shelves should be avoided. Roof access is restricted to Managers and Service Engineers, unless otherwise stated. Preventing Burns There are various equipment in Macdonald which are operated at high temperatures and can cause burn and injuries. Following procedures should be applied to prevent from burn: Upper grill platens must be closed and left standby hen not in use. All equipment must be left to cool down prior to cleaning. Toasters are lowered or locked before moving them. Extra care should be taken when pouring and serving hot drinks to customer. Handling Vats and Hot Oil Vats shouldnt be cleaned or filtered by someone who are not trained to do so. Protective clement must De worn when Telling Ana cleaning vats 011 consultant be discarded unless it has cooled below ICC and have been trained to do so. Vat covers should always be on place when cleaning and pulling vat. While topping up vat,to avoid splashing it should be poured to front edge. If someone is burnt, call the Shift Manager or the designated First Eider. Fire Precautions Fire doors must be closed at all times to prevent fires spreading. Fire exits must be clear at all time to allow evacuation in event of fire. Doors shouldnt be disconnected with door closers or wedges. Every staff working in restaurant should know the fire exits location, alarm call points and assembly points. Smoking is prohibited within all restaurant areas. There is separate smoke area away from the restaurant. Be Alert Be alert for situations that might lead too fire, such as: Gas Doors Damaged plugs, sockets or cord. Extra rubbish from overflowing bin. Managers should be informed immediately in case of any fire safety risks. General Evacuation Procedure In the event of fire the nearest fire alarm is activated. One should only tackle the fire if been trained to do so or else should be reported to shift managers. Restaurant should be left medially with nearest exit available. Even on the case of hearing the alarm,one should leave by nearest exist and proceed to assembly point and report to anger immediately. The important things to remember are DO NOT stop to collect personal belongings,use any lifts and do not return to building until authorized. Use of Fire Extinguisher Extinguishers are made for different types of fire and one should know which one to use and how to use Lifts and Carrying Following are the procedures when lifting and carrying any objects in restaurant. Using chemicals All chemicals and substances used in McDonalds are safe to use when used in correct way. Instructions on the packaging should always be followed and extra care would be taken handling it. Read the label. There are different chemicals for different Job so to ensure proper cleaning right chemicals should be used. In order to minimize the risk of chemical contamination, chemicals shouldnt be transferred from one container to other and should never be mixed. Hand should be washed after handling chemicals. And managers should be informed if any skin irritations arise. Chemicals should be stored away from food and food packaging areas. Working Outside Some of Jobs should involve working outside such as assisting delivery, taking orders room cars in drive thru. In such case high-visibility vest or Jacket should be worn.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Chapter 3 Summary Forest of Kings essays The main focus of the 20th century, or ever before that, is that we have made most of the singular inventions of mankind. However, another more fundamental form of invention existed. If we look at the Maya as a culture without many significant advances, they had few technological wonders. They were a Stone Age people lacking rudimentary developments such as the use of metal and the domestication of beasts of burden. They in there own right had invented ideas that harnessed social energy. The genius if the Maya was expressed through the creation of this new power. The invented political symbols that transformed and coordinated such age-old institutions as the extended family, the village, the shaman and the patriarch in the stuffing of life. It is, however, no coincidence that Maya kingship and Maya Writing emerged simultaneously in the century before the Common Era, for the technology of the writing served as the main functions of Maya daily life. It would be incorrect to say that th ey had invented this new institution from their own experiences, because kings had been around in Mesoamerica for a least a thousand years. The Late Preclassic town of Cerros was one of Maya communities to experience the advent of kingship during the period of its invention. This village was strategically situated to command the mouth of the New River where it emptied into Chetumal Bay on the eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. Cerros was at a cultural edge, for the people of this village were seafarers and traders familiar with distant peoples. These peoples were visiting traders that were wise in the ways of the neighboring Maya cities and the foreign people beyond. The people of Cerros did decide to embrace kingship, as they had learned it, and the consequences of those actions. In the time of two generations, the small fishing village had been transformed into a mighty acropolis. Every sin ...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Research proposal - Dissertation Example A growing and more substantial body of research and studies provide evidence of conflict between intrinsic motivation (a personÃ¢â¬â¢s own motivation for undertaking a task) and extrinsic motivation (external and conditionally imposed motivation for undertaking a task) (Benabou & Tirole, 2003; Holmstrom & Milgrom, 1991; Kreps 1997). In response to the diverse range of motivational studies a number of motivational theories have emerged that endeavor to account for the various findings. Such theories include those that focus either on incentives, expectancies or goals, and those that seek explanation of how employees respond to different types of incentives provided. The objective of this study is to take an investigative approach to research the various motivational theories and how they are being implemented within the workplace. A study will then be undertaken in order to determineundertaking a study that will focus on employee perceptions of the motivational incentive systems ope rating within their company, and how they impact on their performance and effort. ... research literature in relation to motivational systems and theories used within the workplace, and has the potential to provide suggestions for future incentive systems that take both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors into account and foster best opportunities and maximum efficiency and effectiveness of personnel. Literature review Motivational theorists consider that for each and every thing we do (behavior and actions) there is a fundamental reason or cause. They also believe that appreciation of the causes will enable prediction and thus allow for influence on those behaviors or actions (Franken, 2002). Motivational research today focuses mainly on the determination of what spurs motivation - what stimulus is required to increase motivation - and takes both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation into consideration. Intrinsic motivation according to Oudeyer & Kaplon (2007) is best understood when contrasted with extrinsic motivation, which relates to any activity that is un dertaken because of some of kind of reward or discrete outcome. Intrinsic motivation by contrastive definition refers to activities that are undertaken solely for pleasure with no price or value imposed on it (Ryan & Deci, 2000). An important distinction however, is that intrinsic and extrinsic do not mean the same as internal and external and are not synonyms. Internal motivations receive internal rewards, whereas external motivation receives external rewards; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation however is not determined by where the reward comes from but on the type of reward that is given (Oudeyer & Kaplon, 2007). The theory of incentives has traditionally assumed that concrete and/or intangible rewards such as money, power or investments (Hoy & Miskel, 1991) that are given